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If a patient is unable to understand English, what is the best method to obtain an informed consent form?
What can be measured by using a hydrophone?
When an ultrasound machine is used to scan a patient who has active hepatitis B, and the patient’s body fluid contacts the machine, how should it be cleaned?
If asked to perform an examination on an inpatient, what should you do first?
This universal precaution should be taken before beginning an exam.
If the pulse repetition frequency is increased, what is a possible consequence?
Which of these instrument control adjustments will help to overcome attenuation?
What units refer to pressure?
What factors determine the impedance of the medium?
When frequency doubles, what happens to the wavelength?
When the amplitude of a sound wave is doubled, how does this affect the power?
Assuming sound is travelling in soft tissue, an echo is received by the transducer 26 microseconds after it was transmitted. What is the depth of the structure that generated the echo?
What two parameters are related to the duty factor?
In what direction do the particles of the medium travel in a sound wave?
The largest attenuation coefficient is found in which of the following body tissues?
When a higher frequency transducer is chosen, what is sacrificed?
When the signal’s intensity strength is reduced -3dB, what is the resulting change in the system’s power?
If sound encounters a boundary at 90 degrees that is large and smooth in comparison with the wavelength, what type of reflection will occur?
What does the metric prefix “micro” represent?
Units that express relative amplitude differences are
The initial intensity of a signal is increased by 1000 times, what is the increase in decibels?
What happens to duty factor if the pulse repetition period is increased by a factor of 2?
The number of compressions and rarefactions that occur in one second of time defines which of these parameters?
Of the following intensities, which is the highest?
A signal’s harmonic frequency is 16 MHz. What is the fundamental frequency?
If the amplitude is increased to double its original value, what will happen to intensity?
For refraction to occur at the boundary between two tissues, what is necessary?
What intensity ratio is signified by a 50 dB drop in intensity?
What should the acoustic impedance of the matching layer be?
What will happen if the temperature of the transducer is raised above the Curie point?
How can the axial resolution be improved?
What causes the greatest variance in lateral resolution?
This type of transducer can provide multi focusing in all planes at all depths from the transducer.
A 5 MHz transducer that is 6 mm in width has a Near Zone Length of 3 cm. What is the lateral resolution at 3 cm from the face of the transducer?
Curving the piezoelectric transducer element will improve this type of resolution in the near field.
What type of image format is produced by a linear switched transducer?
What is the optimal choice for matching layer thickness?
Using different voltage amplitudes to drive a group of elements in a non-uniform manner will reduce grating lobes. This is called
What effect will adding more damping to the transducer have?
Which of these transducers does NOT produce a sector type image format?
When a greater number of active elements are used to receive echoes returning from greater depths, this is termed
Reduction in the wavelength will most affect which of the following?
How is the piezoelectric effect described?
This transducer type contains multiple concentric rings of PZT that have a bull’s eye shape.
What is the axial resolution in soft tissue for a 3 MHz transducer with 2 cycles per pulse?
What component of the transducer is located behind the piezoelectric element and functions to reduce the spatial pulse length?
When harmonic imaging mode is used, image data is acquired from frequencies ____________________than the transmitted frequency.
What can the sonographer do that will improve axial resolution?
What effect does increasing the thickness of the piezoelectric element have?
The operator’s choice of which frequency transducer to use for an ultrasound examination depends most heavily on
By narrowing the effective aperture of the transducer, which of these performance measurements is altered on a tissue equivalent phantom?
What is true of the Fraunhofer Zone?
When using B Mode for imaging, what does the brightness of the dot on the display screen relate to?
What will improve the spatial resolution of an image on the digital display?
What type of image recording and storage is NOT affected by interference from a strong magnetic field?
Reverberation artifacts are
When line density is doubled, and no changes in focuses or imaging depth are made, what happens to the frame rate?
How many bits are required to demonstrate 256 shades of gray?
What two variables relate to the range equation?
This postprocessing function enlarges the ultrasound image by increasing the pixel size, and results in some loss of detail resolution.
Using M Mode, what does the horizontal (x axis) represent?
Both of these imaging processing techniques will reduce or eliminate the appearance of grating lobe artifacts on a gray scale image.
When is postprocessing performed?
When acoustic energy travels through a medium with a propagation speed less than 1540 m/s, what may happen to reflectors deep to that medium?
What does the total time to create an ultrasound image depend upon?
When an image is created by steering the scan lines at multiple angles and then combined, what is this function called?
When noise is present in an image, what is included on the display?
What is the standard used by the medical industry for communications between computers?
When range ambiguity artifact is present, where is the reflector placed?
How will increasing the number of focuses affect the ultrasound scan?
An imaging system containing 10 bits in digital memory can differentiate between how many gray shades?
After compressing a 130 dB signal by 30 dB, what is the signal’s dynamic range?
This imaging artifact will cause the reflector to be placed at an incorrect location on the display.
This imaging mode only uses a single pulse per scan line.
Which of these is a post processing function of the ultrasound system?
Using M Mode, what factor is most relevant in relation to the reflector’s position on the vertical axis?
After encountering a structure that is highly reflective or highly attenuating, the echo signal is reduced. What is this called?
This hard copy storage method enables ultrasound image data to be easily archived and communicated to distant locations.
What imaging system component performs coded excitation?
Which of theses changes will NOT improve temporal resolution?
The image quality is improved with spatial compounding in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Which change will NOT alter the hard copy output of the ultrasound unit?
Only reflector amplitude and reflector depth are evaluated using this imaging mode?
This receiver function eliminates low amplitude signals from the display, but does not alter high amplitude ones.
An image’s detail resolution may be improved by averaging the brightness values of adjacent pixels to fill in missing pixels. What is this process called?
What is an advantage in using continuous wave ultrasound?
What type of flow pattern is identified when blood is flowing in thin concentric layers with the maximum velocity in the center of the flow?
To what imaging artifact is Power Angio most susceptible?
At what angle is the Doppler shift best?
What will change if Doppler ultrasound and 2D gray scale ultrasound are operating simultaneously?
When Doppler spectral broadening is observed, what can be deduced about the pattern of blood flow?
Color Doppler is an estimation of which of these?
If the source frequency of a pulsed wave Doppler instrument is 5 MHz and the received frequency is 5.008 MHz, what is the frequency shift and in what direction is the reflector moving?
A CW instrument is operating at 8 MHz and has a wavelength of .19 mm. What is the Duty Factor?
What is the purpose of the wall filter in a spectral Doppler display?
An ultrasound imaging instrument that combines pulsed Doppler with a spectral waveform display, and real time B mode imaging is called
What will occur if the Doppler angle between the sound propagation and the direction of flow is increased from 30 degrees to 60 degrees?
The greatest probability of aliasing will occur with
This type of Doppler imaging is performed using a transducer with two separate transducer elements that are housed side by side within the same case.
Color variance maps help in detection and evaluation of
The relationship between the pressure, volume flow rate, and resistance to flow is explained by this equation.
FFT is utilized to
How is frequency processing achieved with Color Doppler imaging?
What is the cause of the black area around the baseline of this spectral Doppler waveform?
When should Quality Assurance testing be performed?
What is the diagnostic test that is judged to be 100% accurate, and against which other imaging tests are compared?
When using a tissue equivalent phantom, a reflector on the display at 18 cm from the transducer’s face was visualized very clearly 2 months ago. It is not seen clearly now. What could be the problem?
What system performance measurement CANNOT be evaluated using a Test Object?
If a sound wave is traveling through air at 330 m/s, and 1 second elapses between the time the sound is sent and the time the echo returns to the sound source, at what distance from the source is the reflector that produced the echo?
When is it permissible for a patient to revoke a signed informed consent form?
A billion is larger than a million by a factor of
What is the approximate end diastolic velocity in this waveform?
In this ultrasound phantom, which group of pins is used to test horizontal calibration accuracy?
In this phantom image, the rods are spaced at 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm apart. What is the longitudinal resolution?
In this image, which way is the blood flowing?
The imaging artifact in this image can be corrected by
What is the first adjustment that the sonographer should make to optimize this image?
This spectral waveform was obtained using a 5 MHz transducer. What will change on the image if you switch to a 10 MHz transducer?
What is the cause of the color change in this vessel?
What adjustment should be made to improve the color filling within the vessel?