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When everything on the ultrasound display screen is too dark, which adjustment should you make as a last resort?
What type of potential bioeffect mechanism is related to the production and excitation of microbubbles?
If a sonographer is required to perform a scan on a patient in a unit, how should the patient’s identity be verified?
When caring for a geriatric patient who needs to use a bedpan, what patient need is often overlooked and ignored?
What danger does a cracked transducer present to the patient?
Which of these intensities is the smallest?
What is required for reflection to occur?
What is the definition of pressure?
If the period is decreased, how is the frequency affected?
When the amplitude of a sound wave is doubled, how does this affect the power?
According to this principle, a sound beam has an hourglass shape due to constructive and destructive interference effects of sound wavelets, that are produced by individual sources of sound.
At which of these interfaces is the Intensity Reflection Coefficient (IRC) greatest?
What frequency range is audible to the human ear?
How will the propagation speed change if a 5 MHz transducer is switched to a 10 MHz transducer?
In addition to a change in the propagation speeds between the media through which sound is travelling, what other requirement is necessary for refraction to occur?
When incident sound waves encounter red blood cells, what most probably will occur?
The power of the system is at 100%, and this is represented as 0 dB. What is the change in decibels if the power is reduced by a factor of 2?
At a boundary between two soft tissue media with different impedances, how much sound is typically reflected?
What physical process forms the basis for harmonic imaging?
What is measured when the propagation speed of sound is multiplied by density of the medium?
Which of these statements is true of rarefaction?
When the system’s power is reduced by 50%, how many decibels of reduction is this?
How is an ultrasound wave best described?
If sound is travelling in soft tissue, what is the wavelength for a transducer with a frequency of 3 MHz?
In which of these tissues will sound travel slowest?
What frequency range is most commonly used in clinical ultrasound imaging?
Assuming normal incidence, where will maximum reflection occur?
Which law best describes what happens when a sound wave encounters a tissue boundary at oblique incidence, and there are different propagation speeds between the media?
If the wavelength is shortened by increasing the operating frequency, what imaging parameter will improve?
Which of the following determines the frequency of operation for a pulsed wave transducer?
The area of space that lies between the face of the transducer and the focus is the
What benefit is associated with an annular array transducer?
What type of steering does an annular array transducer have?
Using a transducer with a wide bandwidth will most affect which type of resolution?
Why is coupling gel necessary for ultrasound imaging?
Axial resolution is also known as
What benefit is offered by subdicing the transducer elements?
When the sound source is very small and passes through a tiny aperture, it spreads out into a “V” shape. What is this termed?
For an unfocused transducer, what is the distance between the transducer’s face, and the point where the beam diverges called?
Where does the sound beam diverge?
What effect will using a transducer with a higher frequency have in the far field?
What advantage does a 1 1/2 dimensional array transducer provide in imaging?
The transducer’s diameter is 12 mm, and the sound beam is narrowest at 8 cm from the transducer. What is the beam width at 16 cm from the front of the transducer?
What effect does decreasing the effective aperture of the transducer have on the image?
Using harmonic imaging, the image displays echo signals generated from a 5 MHz frequency. What is the fundamental frequency?
What type of focusing does a single element transducer have?
Transducers that have higher operating frequencies are limited in diagnostic applications due to limitations in
Which of these methods is used to focus the sound beam when it is in the receive mode?
A change in lateral resolution will occur with an alteration in
Which of the following will yield a wider dynamic range?
This artifact occurs due to the reduction of echo signal amplitude deep to a structure that is a strong reflector or attenuator of sound energy.
Which of the following adjustments will enhance the amplitude differences between echoes?
Sound travels through a mass of fat to a reflector deep to the fat. How will this affect the position of the echo on the display?
To correct for aliasing in a vessel, pulse repetition frequency is increased. What artifact is a possible result of this action?
What type of artifact causes structures that are cystic to fill in with echoes from surrounding tissues?
Which of the following factors will NOT produce a change in the frame rate?
How many bits does a byte contain?
What is temporal resolution most related to?
Persistence, interpolation, panoramic imaging, and spatial compounding are examples of
What is the cause of posterior enhancement?
If the transit time of an ultrasound pulse travelling in soft tissue is 130 microseconds, what is the reflector’s depth?
This image processing function averages three to four frames in order to produce a smoother image.
Which imaging artifact may be seen with a multi-element transducer, but is not seen with a single element transducer?
What is DICOM?
If all returning echo signals are uniformly amplified, what is this called?
How can range ambiguity artifact be avoided?
What is the result of an increase in peak rarefaction pressure?
Which of the following is inversely related to the Mechanical Index?
At which tissue interface are bioeffects due to thermal mechanism most likely to occur?
For an unfocused transducer, what is the highest intensity output that is considered to be safe for patient use?
The Doppler sample volume is placed in a vessel that is 4 cm deep. How much time will elapse between the time the signal is sent and received?
What is a possible negative impact of harmonic tissue imaging?
Posterior to a weak reflector and attenuator of sound, what is visualized?
Which of these artifacts is NOT visualized as a false reflector deep to the real reflector?
What receiver function eliminates signals with low amplitude signal strength (includes both noise and real reflectors)?
The ability of an ultrasound machine to display gray scale and pulsed wave Doppler information simultaneously is called…
If a voltage is amplified from .001 to .1 volts, how many decibels of gain does this represent?
If the frame rate is 30 Hz, how much time is required to produce one frame?
By doubling the number of scan lines per degree of sector angle, what will occur?
When blood flow is erratic, chaotic, and moving at different speeds in different directions, what type of flow pattern is described?
The size of a Color Doppler jet is most closely related to which of these instrument controls?
With Doppler ultrasound, when does aliasing occur?
Inadequate color filling is seen on a Color Doppler image. Which of the following adjustments will NOT be effective in improving color filling?
Variance maps are primarily useful in cardiac scanning. What does the color green on this map indicate?
These units are used to quantify a fluid’s viscosity.
When using spectral Doppler, which of these angles will yield the most INACCURATE velocity measurement?
The advantage of the variance map in Color Doppler imaging lies in the fact that it can identify…
Color Doppler calculates
Normal arterial waveforms…
Phasicity, in relation to venous spectral waveform patterns, reflects changes due to…
In order to help eliminate Doppler aliasing artifact, what adjustment should the sonographer make?
Which of these ultrasound signals has the highest likelihood of aliasing?
If the Pulse Repetition Frequency is 14kHz , what is the Nyquist Limit?
Arteries that are long and straight without direction changes or stenosis typically exhibit what type of flow pattern?
The change from laminar to turbulent flow is predicted by this principle?
On a Doppler spectral waveform tracing, what are the shades of gray present related to?
What does a Thermal Index of 3 indicate?
This type of phantom is used in Quality Assurance testing of the system’s Doppler capabilities.
When is quality assurance checking of the ultrasound system required?
For what reason is a Quality Assurance program performed?
What performance standard can only be performed by a qualified service engineer?
Which of the following will improve visualization of reflectors in the dead zone of the image?
Small groups of elements are fired in sequential groups in a linear switched array transducer. This results in
This intensity is specifically associated with tissue damage caused by temperature increases.
When a patient presents for an ultrasound examination, what is the first thing that you as the sonographer should do?
If the SPTA intensity is 1 W/cm2, and the area that the beam occupies is 5 cm2, what is the power?
When using a 4 bit imaging system, how many gray shades can be displayed?
How many echo intensities can be displayed with an 8 bit ultrasound imaging system?
In this image, what direction is the blood flowing?
What type of transducer produced this image?
What transducer component is the arrow labeled B pointing to?
How can this imaging artifact be corrected?
How can the Doppler artifact in this image be eliminated?
What is the best way to optimize this image?
How can this spectral waveform be improved?
Which control adjustment will increase the Color Doppler signal?
Why is the color fill in this vessel incomplete?
What adjustment should be made to optimize this image?
Where should the flow, moving away from the sound source at a depth of 2 cm, be measured?
In this test object, what is being evaluated by measuring the length of line D?